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AS物理实验Paper3该如何答题?

标签:    点击量:     发布日期:2018-05-19    作者:四老师

原标题:AS物理实验Paper3该如何答题?

实验操作是获得准确数据的基础,也是让整个实验不出错误的保障。而将操作规范放一边不谈,我们今天就谈谈针对实验卷paper3的第一个题型,我们该如何作答,如何表述自己的数据才能让自己尽量多的拿到最后的分数。

P3的第一题具有固定的实验思路,当然也有统一标准的答题模式,按照题目的思路,首先应该是用某一种测量仪器测量,记录第一组数据,请你注意,在写下第一个数据的同时,也向阅卷人宣告了自己所用仪器的误差或精确度,在之后的所有对相同物理量的测量时,精确度必须保持一致。

写完第一组数据后,接下来就是改变自变量,分别得到六组因变量数据,然后做表格,画图(90%+是直线),求斜率,求截距,给定方程求常量,大致也就这几个步骤了。

接下来,我们一起来解析CIE官方给出的学习指导:

Paper 3 Tips: Practical Test

Do not panic if the context of the practical experiment appears unfamiliar. Where appropriate the question paper will tell you exactly what to do and how to do it. (按照试卷的要求进行傻瓜操作就可以了,不用多想)

If you find yourself in real difficulty setting up your practical equipment you may ask your supervisor for help, you will only lose one or more marks for this.(请老师帮忙也要付出代价的哦,但如果你真的不会连或者找不到电路中的错误又能缠着老师帮你到底的话,几分也是值得的吧)

There are a number of things that you can do to save time: Draw a single table for your results in advance of taking any readings and enter your readings in the table as you take them (so that you do not waste time having to copy them up later).(先思考需要记录的物理量,共有多少个?分别是什么?表格应该有几行几列?)

This is also important because you must record all your raw readings before you calculate and record any average readings.(真很简单吧?不解释)

If the number of readings that you need to take is indicated in the question paper do not waste time by exceeding this number. Repeat your readings, but remember that it is only necessary to repeat them once (so that you have two sets of values) - do not waste time repeating them more than once.

All the raw readings(记得是测量数据哦,可不是计算得值哦!) of a particular quantity should be recorded to the same number of decimal places which should in turn be consistent with the uncertainty in the readings.(一句话,同一个物理量测六次,精确度必须相同,不解释!)

The uncertainty in a measurement can sometimes be larger than the smallest interval that can be measured by the measuring equipment. For example, a stopwatch can measure time to a hundredth of a second, but human reaction times will mean that the uncertainty in the reading given by a stopwatch is (typically) 0.1s to 0.4s. (建议各位把各种测量仪器的使用方法及误差在考前做一个总结,事半功倍!)

Each column heading in your table must contain both a quantity and its unit. For instance if you have measured time “t” in seconds, your column heading would be written as “t/s” (“t in s” or “t(s)” would also be acceptable). The quantity or unit or both may also be written in words rather than symbols. (这就是传说中的表头了,这可是阅卷人评阅表格的第一项,第一印象的重要性就不要我重复了吧。)

The number of significant figures used in a derived quantity that you calculate from your raw readings should be equal in number to (or possibly one more than) the number of significant figures in the raw readings. (这个没有理由,convention,就和丈夫不能出轨一样的道理,出轨了后果自负吧!)

For example, if you measure potential difference and current to 2 and 3 sig figs respectively, then the corresponding value of resistance calculated from them should be given to 2 or 3 sig figs, but not 1 or 4. If both were measured to 3 significant figures, then the resistance could be given to 3 (or 4) sig figs. (从这里也可以看出,同一竖向列里的数据,有可能小数点后的位数会不同,但并不影响结果。)

When drawing your graph, do not forget to label each axis with the appropriate quantity and unit,(和表头一样重要,您自己掂量,是不是应该在选取分度值之前先把他们给标上呢?) using the same format for expressing column headings in a table. Choose a scale such that the plotted points occupy at least half the graph grid in both the x and y directions.(此处有技巧,减减除除约约,完事!)

The x-axis scale should increase positively to the right and the y-axis scale should increase positively upwards. Use a convenient scale such as 1, 2 or 5 units to a 50px square (建议您就用这个吧,别弄个3,4,6的,搬了石头砸自己的脚,好疼的!)as you will then be less likely to make a mistake with the position of your plotted points and it will be easier for you to read off points from your graph if you are calculating the gradient or finding an intercept. Similarly, it is good practice to mark values on at least every other 50px square.

All your plotted points should be on the grid; points in the white margin area will be ignored. Plot all your observations and ensure that they are accurate to half a small square. A fine cross (or an encircled dot) drawn with a sharp pencil is acceptable, but be careful not to obscure the position of your points by your line of best fit or other working. (铅笔削细,描点画叉,做线细又直,千万别把点给盖了!)

When drawing your line of best fit, ensure you have an even balance of points about the line along its whole length. If it is a straight line, use a clear plastic rule so that you can see points on both sides of the line as it is being drawn. (尽量多的过点,不在线上的点均匀分布在直线两侧)

Show all your working when calculating a gradient. It is helpful to draw the triangle(做好虚线的直角三角形哦) used to calculate the gradient on the graph and to clearly label the coordinates of the vertices(标好您所选择的用来计算斜率的两个点的坐标) (accurate to half a small square). These values can then be used in the gradient calculation. The length of the hypotenuse of the triangle should be greater than half the length of the graph line. (选点选两头,不要选表格中的点,以免引起误会解释不清)

If you are required to give a value for the y-intercept, it may be possible to directly read it off from your graph(如果直线与y轴有交点,太好了,直接读取) from an axis where x=0. If this is not possible you can instead calculate the y-intercept by using the equation of a straight line. (如果没有与y轴相交,那就把算斜率的点带进直线方程去求吧)

In this case you should substitute into this equation a pair of x and y values from your line of best fit along with your calculated value of gradient.

想要了解更多alevel补习的信息,可以咨询学通国际教育顾问老师。

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